Lord Chaitanya is Krishna Himself. He appeared 530 years ago in the holy land of Mayapur in Navadvip, West Bengal. He is the Absolute Truth, the Supreme Personality of Godhead.
500 years ago, it was the period of ascendency of the Mughals. Muslims, who made several attempts to efface the ancient Vedic spiritual culture of India with their own, ruled the land. Imposing oppressive laws on the population, they wished to coerce the locals to give up their spiritual traditions. The ancient Vedic varnashrama system, had knowledgeable Brahmanas advising powerful Kshatriyas who protected the Vedic principles in society. By the degrading influence of the age of Kali, both these classes had collapsed and India lay vulnerable to the latent marauding forces that always threaten to overrun a dignified spiritual society with impiety like sinful thoughts waiting to spring on the vacillating mind.
The Lord wished to attract the attention of humanity from petty, mundane pursuits to the ultimate transcendental reality. In a society mired in gross conflict born of false identification with polluted religious doctrines, Lord Chaitanya took advent to establish love for the Supreme Absolute Truth. This gargantuan task was possible for none but the Supreme Lord Himself. Transcendental mellows of relationship with the Supreme Absolute Truth are experienced only by an extremely refined, pure, selfless consciousness free of turmoil. In a society teeming with disturbed individuals steeped in illusion, the task of invoking these fine feelings for the Absolute Truth could only be accomplished by the Absolute Truth Himself.
For achieving His divine purpose on a global scale, the Lord unleashed the powerful yet simple Nama Sankirtana movement. It involved not any great austerities, but merely the congregational chanting of the Lord’s holy name. By this He wanted to instil pure devotional feelings in the hearts of the people. For this exalted purpose Lord Krishna personally appeared in the holy land of Navadvip as Lord Chaitanya.
Lord Krishna of the battlefield of Kurukshetra established real principles of religion, “To deliver the pious and to annihilate the miscreants, as well as to re-establish the principles of religion, I Myself appear, millennium after millennium.” BG 4.8. Krishna of Vrindavan on the other hand revealed confidential intimate loving relationships with Him in four transcendental mellows namely servitude, friendship, parental and conjugal love. “My plenary portions can establish the principles of religion for each age. No one but Me, however, can bestow the kind of loving service performed by the residents of Vraja.” CC Adi 3.26. Lord Chaitanya is Lord Krishna who desired to deliver transcendental love of Himself to the fallen souls of a degraded age. This is His greatest benediction on them.
Advaita Acharya was a contemporary of Lord Chaitanya’s father. He felt compassion for the people bereft of a sense of devotional service to Krishna. He therefore cried for the Lord’s appearance as Lord Chaitanya to rescue humanity from the tribulations of material existence by establishment in devotional service. Being pleased by Advaita Acharya, Lord Chaitanya appeared in Navadvip to satisfy His pure devotee.